Celebrating Yule, the winter solstice

Celebrating Yule, the winter solstice

Yule is an indigenous winter festival with its roots deeply in the pagan traditions of Germanic peoples, northern European traditions and modern pagans. It is marked by the Winter Solstice, the longest night. The way it is celebrated may differ depending on the tradition, but essentially it is a celebration of conquering the dark and turning towards the light. In the ancient customs people come together to offer food to the Gods, followed by a large feast. Rituals are being performed to call for blessings as we prepare for the new cycle. Traditionally it is a 13-day celebration, honouring the elements. It begins with the element of fire celebrating the return of sunlight.

The winter season is dream time

In the wisdom of the seasons teaching, the Winter Solstice is the height of the winter season. We are called to journey within, to connect to our roots and sit with our ancestors to remember who we are.
 
This year we are also blessed with the new moon, which falls on the 23rd of December, enhancing the presence of the energy of darkness, offering a rare opportunity to be cradled by the dark silence to truly perceive our most precious light, the spark we hold within us – the spark of limitless opportunities.
 
The archetypes of the hermit and the crone will allow us to discover the teaching which lies in this magical period of the year. We are called to create moments of true silence and stillness. It is in those moments that we get a glimpse of our deepest knowing.
 
This inner wisdom holds the wisdom of our ancestors as well as the wisdom formed through our life’s journey. So, each year as we repeat this process, the experiences from the previous year will join the wisdom of our ancestors and our soul’s gift, to bring forth the beauty and light, which will carry us into our new cycle.

The question simply is this: will we have the courage and patience to sit in the dark and listen to the sound of silence?

Inspiration for practices during this period:

  • Create time for yourself in preparation for the winter solstice.
  • Do some shamanic journey with the teachers, the crone and/or the hermit. Ask to be taken to your soul spark of light which is ready to journey with you into the new cycle.
  • Prepare a winter solstice ritual or join others in their celebration.
  • Make a list of questions you would like to ask yourself to prepare the journey back towards Imbolc (2nd of February) which marks the beginning of spring in the wisdom of the seasons teaching.
  • Allow rest for your body and nourishment for your soul.

Winter Solstice is the tipping point after which we are moving again towards the growing of light and longer days. It is therefore the end of our growing circle and can inspire the following questions:

  • What have I outgrown?
  • What am I ready to leave behind to make space for the new?

Moving towards the light and a new cycle of growth, we are reminded that the future holds infinite possibilities. The teaching of the winter encourages us to dream the dream of our soul. To remember that we carry within us the spark of limitless opportunities. Ask yourself:

  • What new inspirations are sparked within me?
  • What transformation and what growth would l like to bring to life in this new cycle.
This time is dream time; no dream is too big. It is time to seize the moment, to connect to your gift and pure potential.

Keep a journal! Note your questions and write down answers which might come in dreams, during meditation, while walking in nature or any other time. Don’t limit yourself by judging them or thinking of limitations. Simply collect them. Dream! 

May the longest night and the shortest day, bring rest to your mind and soul, I pray. May you find guidance, and may you find peace, as the cycle of light will slowly increase. Embrace the magic that the darkness bears, breath deep in the chill and shift in the air. May you always be blessed with the light from within, and may well-being be yours as the new cycle begins.

Nourish your body during winter

Nourish your body during winter

When I think of nourishing my body for winter, protection from the elements is my first thought. Then I remember the teaching of the wisdom of the seasons specific to this time of the year. Listening – Nourishing – Resting. These are some of the keywords describing the winter seasonal teachings. As we are approaching Yule with the winter solstice celebration, we are continuing to go within, to become quiet, to listen to our deepest needs and to allow the body to rest and repair. Therefore, when I think of nourishing my body during this season, I will follow the same movement. Here are some ideas to invite you to get into the winter movement.

 

Journey with the seasonal ritual boxes

Let us journey with my seasonal ritual boxes, they have been designed to lead the way. Combining nature’s herbs, lotions and therapeutic oils with ritual and seasonal celebrations will guide us effortlessly into rest and rejuvenation.

Did you know that in ayurvedic medicine (an ancient health system of India) the application of therapeutic oils is a fundamental element for a healthy body. In contemporary culture we know that the skin is our largest organ, our protection, a mirror of our inner health and that the skin is able to absorb nutrients to deliver them right into our system.

DID YOU KNOW?
The skin cells are in constant process of renewal and our skin is replaced every two to four weeks.

Make your morning shower a nourishing ritual

The morning shower routine is a great opportunity to create a nourishing ritual.

  • Choose a soap and a shampoo bar which are natural and feel good to the touch – maybe even with a slight exfoliation effect to help the skin shed dry cells.
  • Choose your products for their natural therapeutic fragrance to get an aromatherapy effect.
  • Find an exfoliant for the face and body which nourishes your skin as you exfoliate.
  • Use dry body brushing to stimulate circulation.
  • After your shower, when your skin is still warm and moist, use a body salve, lotion bar or hydrating body lotion to nourish your skin.
  • Enjoy the combination of touch and fragrance as you apply the lotions to your body.

Et voilà. A beautiful nourishing ritual for every day.

Bathing Ritual

If you have a bath, you can create a bathing ritual. Use herbal bath sachets with your favorite herbs or an aromatherapy bath oil. Create a beautiful atmosphere with candles and enjoy!

Seasonal Skin Care Boxes

I have created the seasonal skin care boxes with my own natural products. Each one features exactly what our skin needs for the season.

Make time for a winter ritual

To nourish your mind and soul, make time for a winter ritual. We celebrate this season with the winter solstice – December 21st. If that is too busy a time for you, schedule a better time between the holidays or even in January when the kids are back in school. The important part is that you have a true moment of silent reflection to contemplate your deepest longings and connect with your inner wisdom. In the Winter Solstice Ritual Box you will find all products, guidance on how to prepare your ritual and inspiration on what questions we should ask ourselves during this period of the year.

“The seasons bring wisdom which inspires us to make positive changes in our lives.”

– Gita

More ideas on how to nourish your body during winter

 

Add nourishing herbs to your diet

Herbal infusion is the easiest way to ensure a healthy supply of minerals and nutrients. Choose your favorite herbs to make delicious herbal teas. Mint, Chamomile, Cedar leave, Nettle, Lemon Balm, Anise Hyssop, Thyme, and Lemon Verbena are some of my favorites. I combine them depending on my needs and likes. You may also check out Nourishing Herbal Infusion by Susun Week as a deep nourishing treatment during the winter.

Ensure adequate physical exercise

Of course, it is important to move your body and get fresh air, but sometimes strenuous physical exercise can be exhausting during cold winter days. You may like to choose a more nourishing and meditative yoga practice.

Strengthening your nervous system

Resting is such an important part of our winter routine. But too much sleep can leave us with a heavy feeling of inertia and lethargy.

The practice of yoga-nidra, meditation, visualisation and shamanic journeying are all ways of resting the body while creating true relaxation and inspiration.

 

Regardless if you are a modern witch, green goddess, a warrior, crone, mother or priestess. How bright you can shine your light is directly related to how strongly you are connected to your soul wisdom and inner voice and in how fiercely you are rooted in who you truly are. To channel and embody this part of yourself is directly related to the time you allow yourself for this inner journey. The winter season is the time in the wheel of the year when we do exactly that. So, nourish our body, listen to your inner wisdom and dream your soul’s desire.

Celebrating Samhain

Celebrating Samhain

Samhain, pronounced (Sow-in), is a Gaelic festival celebrating the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the ‘dark half’ of the year. It is also known as the Celtic new year or the Witches’ New Year.
Samhain marks the mid-point between autumn equinox and winter solstice and with this the beginning of the winter season. In the outside world the darkness takes over the light, and nature is truly coming to rest. We are asked to firmly begin our journey of looking within.
It is the night when the veil to the otherworld is thin and therefore offers an opportunity to be in contact with our ancestors, to receive guidance and inspirations for the new cycle – the journey towards our inner wisdom. In many cultures November 1st is recognised as the day of the dead. In contemporary life it has been expanded into what we know as Halloween.

What is Samhain?

Samhain is the celebration of the dead. It is at this time when we take a moment to contemplate and remember the importance Death plays in our life’s cycles.
 
In the teaching of the wisdom of the seasonsSamhain is the moment when autumn finishes and winter begins. We know autumn to be the season of transition, the season when we harvest. Nature teaches us how to let go, how to bring things to completion, and how to allow our energy to return to our roots, where we stay dormant during winter.
 
To learn how to let go, to surrender to the natural movement, to truly receive the harvest and acknowledge the feeling of loss as well as of gratitude for the abundance we receive through this process, is the blessing offered to us in this teaching. When we do this process well, we create space for new insights, for a moment of rebirth, promised to us in the depth of the silence of winter.
 
In nature we observe how trees and plants return their vital energy back to their roots. Equally we are called to connect to our roots during the dark half of the year. Samhain is therefore the moment when we call to the wisdom of our ancestors, to share with us their knowledge and teaching. Through their inspiration we are now ready for the journey within. The silence and external darkness offer the gift of listening to our intuition and learning how to use our senses to connect to our intuition.

Guardian spirits of Samhain

All ancient traditions will have a guardian and archetype which is particularly related to the celebration of transformation, death, and rebirth. I have journeyed with and would like to introduce to you the following three.

Morrigan

Goddess and guardian of the dead. The
goddess of witchcraft and death, protection and retribution.
 
She carries the gift of moving the soul through the cycles. She is the triple source of power needed to regenerate the cycles of life. The symbols of circles and spirals are associated with her. The raven and vulture and the owl are her companions. Shapeshifting, death and transformation, regeneration and renewal are only some of the powers she is known for.
 
She is the moon goddess, representing the three phases maiden, mother and crone.
 
The Celtic gods Dagda and Lugh are named to be her consorts.
 
Dancing with her energy demands courage. She will take you to meet your shadows, she will move you through the process of death and letting go.
 
And if you call on her, if you put your trust in her, she will take you through the cycles from surrender into rebirth.

La Catrina

La Catrina is Mexico’s lady of death. She is a reminder to enjoy life and embrace death.

In this tradition the day of the dead is a celebration rather than a somber event. Altars are set up in the homes and filled with the favorite foods of the departed. The celebration also includes visiting family and friends and sharing gifts and sweets.

Raven

Magic is the first force which comes with the presence of the raven spirit. The raven assists us in becoming one with our will and intent, achieving great change, allowing dreams to become reality while opening doors to deeper powers of healing.

He signifies rebirth, renewal, and healing. He helps with transformation and transitions bringing light into darkness. He is the perfect companion for shapeshifting. He is a master of dismemberment, teaching us how to let go and move onto the next cycle.

The raven is a guardian and keeper of secrets.

Call on the raven to unleash your inner magic. He will teach you to hear messages from the otherworld and show you the real beauty of your shadow side.

Celebrating Samhain

Any celebration should be in resonance with your personal practice and means. It is the intension which counts. Keep it simple and relevant. Make it fun. Allow yourself to be surprised.

Celebrating life while embracing death can seem like a bit of a challenge. I invite you to include a sacred ritual in your celebration which will give you the space and opportunity for a calm reflection. Then when the ritual is done you can continue with different forms of your celebration. As Samhain marks the moment of transitioning from autumn into winter season, we are called to make a last effort of releasing negative energy from our lives, our habits and our mind. When we cleanse, we make space for new visions and opportunities. Begin with a cleansing ritual and let it naturally flow into the celebration of life.

Prepare your Samhain ritual

1. Cleanse your space

In shamanic healing cleansing is done through smudging and using sound in particular the rattle. You may choose to do a cleansing ritual before setting up for your Samhain ritual or include it, thus beginning your celebration with cleansing.

Prepare your smudging bowl and burning incense. Cedar or sage are particularly good for this purpose.

For your ritual light your incense and smudge your room, tools, sacred space and all people participating. State clearly your intension of releasing negative energies and blockages. Letting go of behaviors, dependencies and attachments. Then play your rattle and repeat the process using sound. Call on the spirit guides for release – the raven if you are courageous!

Continue with the incense and rattle until you feel the energy has shifted.

 

2. Build your altar

Take some time to prepare your altar space. I take this time to cleanse my existing altars and move things around. I clean away decorations and offerings from autumn. I change the spirit mask and other elements. I make sure I have a representation of Morrigan and La Catrina. I add candles and new offerings: fruits, sweets, mead, lotions and magic potions, herbal blends in tinctures, incense, herbal bath sachets, smoking blends to name just a view.
 
If building an altar is new to you, you might like to look at the post ‘Creating a sacred altar for daily connection’ and the Wisdom of the Witch publication ‘Creating your altar’.

Prayer to the dead

In your preparation for your Ritual think of the people and ancestors you would like to honour. If you know their likes, consider making a dish or include an offering of a food or drink they liked. Prepare a short prayer or song to connect with them, so they know that they are not forgotten and included in the celebrations.
 

Samhain invites you to…

Reflect on the following questions:

  • What part within me am I ready to let go of? What is ready to die?
  • What do I need to release to transform?
  • What can be revealed from my shadows? What light can emerge from the darkness?
  • What magic is awaiting me in the dark?
  • What is the message from my ancestors?
  • How can I best nourish myself in this winter season?

You may like to do a shamanic journey to receive answers to these questions and be in communication with Morrigan and the raven to ask for assistance in this process.

 

“Samhain is here, cold is the earth, as we celebrate the cycle of death and rebirth. Tonight we speak to those through the veil, the lines between worlds are thin and frail. Ghosts and spirits in the night, magical beings rising in flight, owls hooting up in a moonlit tree, I don’t fear you and you don’t fear me. As the sun goes down, far to the west, my ancestors watch over me as I rest. They keep me safe and without fear, on the night of Samhain, the Witches’ New Year.”

Morrigan, Morrigan Three times Three,

Hear the words I ask of Thee.

Grant me vision, Grant me power

Cheer me in my darkest hour.

As the night overtakes the day,

Morrigan, Morrigan light my way…

Morrigan, Morrigan Raven Queen,

Round and round the Hawthorn green.

Queen of beauty, Queen of Art,

Yours my body, Yours my heart.

All my trust I place in thee,

Morrigan, Morrigan be with me…

Luna’s Grimoire

 

Celebrating the change of seasons by celebrating the related festivals will allow you to live more in tune with them, awakening the energies associated with them and allowing them to manifest in your life. By celebrating Samhain, the passage from fall to winter, you will allow yourself the opportunity to enter a new cycle dedicated to the journey inward. I hope you will take full advantage of this season to take time to listen to the messages and connect with your intuition.

A ritual to support you in your spring cycle

A ritual to support you in your spring cycle

Ritual is a powerful transformative tool which can be incorporated into the daily routine or done at specific times. Ritual often marks the beginning or end of a period or activity. Other times a ritual is used to honour and celebrate a specific moment. The more connected you are to the cycle of life, the more you will see that there are many occasions that can be honored with ritual. As we move out of winter and into spring, I invite you to live this transition through a ritual of connecting to your roots and calling upon the support and strength that will sustain you in this new cycle, by connecting to an element of nature: the tree.

The intention for this ritual

Begin your ritual by setting your intention.

Decide on a tree of your choice with which you would like to connect. Then formulate your intention using the following inspiration:

  • To remember your own roots and the strength and grounding they give you.
  • To experience strength.
  • To remember all the support available to you in your next cycle.

This ritual can be done outside if you have access to a tree in your garden, park or woods near your home. Choose a place where you feel safe and will not be disturbed. If not, you can do this in your home connecting to a tree through a photo or image.

Take the time to write down any personal intentions you would like to include in this ritual. Use a notebook or journal to write down any keywords or ideas that come to you, then formulate a clear intention. For example:

  • Remember all the support available to me which I can draw on to thrive in this new cycle.
  • Reconnect to the faith in my life that will fuel my confidence.
  • Connect to the power of nature to awaken the strength within me.
  • Experience a moment of rejuvenation.

Ritual is a powerful transformative tool which can be incorporated into the daily routine, mark times of transition, or to celebrate specific moments.

The setup of your ritual space

The next step is to begin with setting up your ritual space which can be very simple or as elaborate as you like!

If you are outside:

  • Choose your tree.
  • Set up a blanket to sit on at the base of the tree allowing you to lean against it during the ritual.
  • Decorate your space by forming a sacred circle around you and your tree. You can do this with stones, flowers, leaves, branches, or anything else you find in nature.
  • Choose different items to make it personal: candles, incense, instruments, crystals, a small statue, a picture, fruits (as an offering or as a feast for the end of the ritual), etc.
  • Bring into the circle any tools you may need: your intention notes, a notebook and pen for writing or a recorder if you prefer to have a natural flow during the visualization, etc.
If you are inside:

  • Choose the space where you will do your ritual. You can sit in a comfortable chair, on your couch, or even on your bed with the altar in front of you, on a desk, tray, (or anything else) etc. You can also sit on the floor or, like many of my friends, do your ritual in your bath, a place where you can close the door and not be disturbed.
  • Decorate your space in the same way as suggested for the outside. Place flowers around you in a circle, crystals, a statue… anything that speaks to you. For the bathroom, add candles in the room and scented oils in your bathwater.
  • Place an image of a tree showing its large root system near you, to support your visualization.

The ritual

1. Mark the beginning of the ritual

Once you are ready, mark the beginning of your ritual. I like to form a circle by putting salt or tobacco as an offering all around me in the outer line of the circle. I call on all my helping spirits to assist me. I say a prayer to acknowledge the spirit of the tree and the nature spirits around me. You can sing a song, ring a bell, or play a drum. You can dance or just sit in silence.

2. Connect with the tree you have chosen

Whether it is the tree you are leaning against or the image of a tree in front of you, begin to visualize the tree, focusing on the roots deeply pushing into the earth, and start contemplating what nourishes the tree, and the communication of the trees with their environment.

Connect to the root system and use this image to think about your own roots! What represents the strongest roots in your life? What gives you the most security and keeps you strong during life’s challenges? Take your time to let the ideas and images come into your mind. Think of all the strengths you have that you might take for granted. Emotional strength, knowledge through education, knowledge through experience, friends and connections in the community, spiritual practices, and more. Take your time and be open to surprises. Let your emotions guide you.

Then direct your thinking to what feeds the tree. Where does it get its nutrients from? The soil around it provides all the food it needs to grow strong. What does the soil in which you are rooted provide you with? Where do you get your true nourishment? Gather images and ideas in your mind. If you need to, you can open your eyes and write them down or record them.

Direct your final thoughts to the communication that trees have with their environment. The root system has an elaborate form of communication with the other roots of the trees around them, through which the trees inform each other of possible diseases, allowing them to develop resistance in advance. Who or what is the support that you can rely on? Allow yourself to receive all the information and record your impressions and visions.

Before you step out of your visualization, take stock of all the amazing support and strengths you have to build your own personal root system for your life. Next, set an intention for your new cycle that begins this spring and think about your plans for the new year. What do you want to add to your life? What new branches or leaves will grow on your tree in this new season? These may be specific projects or qualities in your relationships, such as peace, harmony, strength, joy, and abundance. Make a clear statement and remind yourself of all the support and strength available to you through your roots.

3. Complete the ritual

Once you are out of your visualization, take notes of your experience. Let your creativity flow by listening to the inspirations and new ideas that may come naturally. You can continue to celebrate this new energy within you with a song, dance, or other creative project. Then thank all the spirits and people who have helped you with this ritual. Take time to undo your sacred space. Clean it up, put all the objects back in their place. You may wish to keep a representation of your ritual space. Keep a crystal, flower or leaf and place it on your personal altar as a reminder of this energy. You can also keep a small altar on a tray to continue your prayer and intention for a while longer. You will see, in the days to come you will feel the presence of the energy of your ritual!

This ritual ‘connecting to your roots’ will raise your energy to another level, at a time of year when we are entering the spring season. Connected to your own roots, you will be able to draw on your strengths and what nourishes you and find the support you need to bring your projects to life. To accompany you throughout the spring season, treat yourself to the Spring Ritual Box made up of a collection of our products which have been carefully selected for you to assist you to create your sacred space, and continue in the manifestation of your seasonal intentions.

 

A ritual to integrate into your daily life

A ritual to integrate into your daily life

Incorporating a daily ritual into your everyday schedule will have a number of benefits in your life. Taking a moment for yourself each day will not only provide a moment of reflection and calm, but will also bring clarity to your thoughts, open a door of communication with your intuition and inner wisdom, establish a daily practice to nourish your soul, and will provide a source of rejuvenation and renewal. Here is a suggested ritual that you can do in the morning or in the evening at your convenience.

Choose your ideal moment

To ensure a regular practice, it is important that you choose a time of day that will fit easily into your routine. The best time for the ritual is in the morning, when you first wake up, or in the evening, once your commitments for the day are finished. Personally, I like the morning time because I carry the energy of my ritual with me throughout the day. Other people like the evening because they find it a great way to release the stress of the day and create harmony after a busy day.

Your decision should be motivated by your personal needs. It is important that the ritual is not an extra task but a joy. It is your daily rendez-vous with yourself.

To ensure a regular practice, it is important that you choose a time during the day that will fit easily into your routine.

Preparing your place at your sacred altar

Before you begin your ritual, sit in front of your sacred altar. If you do not already have one, choose a place in your home where you can concentrate, ideally a quiet place where you can meditate. An altar is a physical space that is specifically dedicated for this purpose and connects us directly to the world of the invisible. Creating a sacred altar promotes instant connection to a sacred dimension.

If you don’t have a place to leave your altar permanently, placing it on a tray is a great solution so that you can move it at the time of your ritual and then put it back where you keep it when you are done. You can include a candle, incense holder, crystal, statue, image or any other object of your choice, as well as adding elements of nature.

Choose a place in your home where you can focus, ideally a quiet place where you can do your meditations.

Get ready to start your ritual

How you prepare for your ritual is important. Again, it’s a good idea to establish a routine and make sure you are fully prepared before you start, every time. Imagine that your phone suddenly starts ringing, chances are that it will distract you and your mind will drift away from your ritual!
 
Ritual preparations:
  • Determine a minimum amount of time for your ritual. Give yourself 15 to 20 minutes. If you have an appointment afterwards and are afraid of missing the time, place an alarm clock near you.
  • Make sure you are not disturbed. Turn off all your devices.
  • Make sure you have everything you need for your ritual at hand: notebook, pen, etc.
  • Make sure you are completely comfortable. You can sit in a chair with your altar on a table in front of you, or on the floor on your yoga mat. Be comfortable and warm.

Begin your ritual

When you start your ritual, follow the same steps every day.

1. Take a moment to settle in
 
Take a moment to arrive. Settle into a comfortable position, take a few deep breaths. Bring your awareness into the present moment and remind yourself that you are here for your daily ritual and to take a moment for yourself.
 
2. Cleanse the space
 
Light the candles, incense or sage. Do some smudging on yourself and your ritual space. The intention is to cleanse the energies and open a sacred space.
 
3. Mark the beginning of the ritual
 
Take a few long deep breaths to re-center yourself. Call on your spirit guide, ring a bell, sing a song or mantra to mark the beginning of your ritual. Remain in silence for a few minutes and prepare your contemplation.
 
4. Enter into contemplation
 
The focus of your contemplation may differ from day to day:
  • It may be a simple intention, such as bringing harmony to your day or evening.
  • You may have a specific topic you want to focus on. For example, the non-judgment you wish to develop in a specific relationship in your life.
  • You may like to offer a prayer of intention to solve a problem you are facing.
  • You contemplation can also be inspired by the seasons. Use their teachings as a source of inspiration, as we do with the inspiration cards in our ritual boxes. We reflect in the spring on new opportunities, in the summer on what motivates the growth of our actions, in the fall on our harvest and in the winter on inner silence.

Personally, I begin with a prayer of gratitude. I appreciate the sunrise, the birds on my bird feeder, the flowers in my garden, the ice crystals on my window. I let my mind go to what occupies me most and set an intention for the day ahead. I take time to write down my thoughts in my journal and write my intention on my intention cards.

Some days you can write down ideas and inspirations or just sit in silent meditation. Other times, you can follow a recorded visualizations, like on our private Facebook group “The witches cauldron”.

5. Complete your ritual

When you are finished, take a few breaths and refocus in your body. Remind yourself of your intention for the day or evening. Keep this thought with you as you go about your day or sleep. Take a moment to express your gratitude. Appreciate the time you have spent with yourself. Thank the spirit guides you were able to communicate with. Ring a bell to mark the end. Remember to blow out the candles and put all the objects you used back in their place. Allow the energy of your ritual to accompany you through the rest of your day or evening.

 

Integrating a daily ritual into your life will be a great way to maintain the connection with your altar. It is a place dedicated specifically to you for inspiration and to deeply nourish your soul. All the steps of the ritual are important. The more you repeat them, the more you will feel the impact of this powerful transformational tool in your life. Not only does ritual support spiritual practice and can maintain and nourish its flow, but it takes our energy to a level beyond the mind where our ideas, wishes, desires and needs can manifest.